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Abstracts of the years

Abstracts of Volumes 2015

Journal of Machine Engineering Journal of Machine Engineering

CONTENTS

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015

ISSN 1895-7595

o article: Development of Machine Tool Operational Properties (Jedrzejewski J.), pp. 5-24
o article: Spindle Error Movements Measurement Algorithm and a New Method of Results Analysis (Jemielniak K., Chrzanowski J.), pp. 25-35
o article: Numerical Simulation of Self-Excited Vibrations Under Variable Cutting Conditions (Bak P.A., Jemielniak K.), pp. 36-45
o article: Numerical 3D FEM Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Tribological Aspects in Turning Inconel 718 Alloy (Nieslony P., Grzesik Wit ., Laskowski P.), pp. 46-57
o article: Comparison of Two Model Coupling Methods for Joint Identication (Susen J., Sulitka M., Sindler J., Janota M.), pp. 58-70
o article: Characteristics of Surface Topography after Rolling Burnishing of EM AW-ALCU4MGSI (Kalisz J., Zak K., Grzesik W., Czechowski K.), pp. 71-80
o article: Modelling of Material Flow During Incremental Forming Process on the Basis of Digital Material Representation Concept (Szyndler J., Perzynski K., Madej L.), pp. 81-89
o article: The Effect of a Change in Recrystallization Annealing Time on the Properties and Structure of Cold-Drawn Wires (Grygier D., Rutkowska-Gorczyca M., Dudzinski W.), pp. 90-97
o article: Experimental Investigation into Parameters Influencing Roll Tensioning of Circular Saw Blades (Heisel U., Stehle T., Ghassemi H.) pp. 98-111
o article: Processes by Risk Assessment Approach (Machmood K., Shevtshenko E.) pp. 112-124

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JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 5-24

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

DEVELOPMENT OF MACHINE TOOL OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES

Jerzy JEDRZEJEWSKI1, Wojciech KWASNY1
1Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Machine Tools and Mechanical Technologies, Wroclaw, Poland * E-mail: jerzy.jedrzejewski@pwr.edu.pl

Abstract

This paper presents the main directions in the development of machine tools and the practical implementations of new technologies by machine tool producers, aimed at meeting the business requirements. The possibilities of applying intelligent functions in high-performance machine tools and the trends in the development of intelligent machine tools are discussed. The vital importance of the holistic modelling and numerical simulation of the operational properties of machine tools at all the stages of their creation and the necessity of integrating the machine tool with the control system and the process during simulation and virtualization are highlighted.

Author Keywords :

machine tool, intelligence, accuracy, holistic modelling, simulation, thermal properties

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 25-35

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

SPINDLE ERROR MOVEMENTS MEASUREMENT ALGORITHM AND A NEW METHOD OF RESULTS ANALYSIS

Krzysztof JEMIELNIAK1, Jaroslaw CHRZANOWSKI1
1Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract

Machining accuracy depends not only on geometric precision, but also on machine tool spindle error motions. This is particularly important for machining with high rotational speed. Spindle error movements are precisely defined and the method of their measurement methodology is standardized (ISO 230-7 and B89.3.4). Also devices for measuring the error movements are generally known. The main problem is the development of algorithms to ensure the proper measurement, interpretation accordingly to the standards, especially considering so called sensitive and non-sensitive directions. This paper presents an approach and algorithms of spindle errors movements measurement. The proposed methodology is more reliable than commercial solutions.

Author Keywords :

machine tool accuracy, metrology, spindle error motions

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 36-45

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SELF-EXCITED VIBRATIONS UNDER VARIABLE CUTTING CONDITIONS

Piotr Andrzej BAK1, Krzysztof JEMIELNIAK1
1Warsaw Uniwersity of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract

A self-excited vibrations are one of the most important constraints to the performance and quality of machining part and it is affecting its dimensions and geometrical accuracy. Machining stability can be evaluated by different analytical and numerical methods. The paper presents utilization of numerical simulation of non-linear chatter in the time domain in stability analysis of machining process. Vibrations and cutting forces are an output from numerical simulation. In order to perform chatter recognition during excessive vibrations an automatic chatter detection is implemented in machining simulation. By combining all the abovein one and enabling G-code reading, a tool for numerical simulation and validation of entire machining operation was created which is a subject of this paper.

Author Keywords :

self excited vibration, numerical simulation, virtual machining

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 46-57

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

NUMERICAL 3D FEM SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF TRIBOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN TURNING INCONEL 718 ALLOY

Piotr NIESLONY1, Wit GRZESIK1, Piotr LASKOWSKI2,Krzysztof ZAK1
1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland
2PZL WSK Rzeszˇw, Rzeszˇw, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents 3D FEM simulation results performed for the power law and JC (Johnson-Cook) material constitutive models for two sets of friction parameters. The friction conditions were tested using pin-on-disc tribometer. Machining tests were carried out using carbide cutting tools coated with a TiAlN monolayer without coolants. The selection of machining conditions was based on real production data. In addition, a real CAD model of the cutting tool insert was implemented. Moreover, an advanced technique of meshing the cutting edge and the grooved rake face was applied.The simulations include cutting forces and cutting temperature. Finally, FEM simulations were compared with measurements in order to improve the simulation strategy.

Author Keywords :

finite element method, modelling,friction, tribology

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 58-70

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

COMPARISON OF TWO MODEL COUPLING METHODS FOR JOINT IDENTIFICATION

Jindrich SUSEN1, Matej SULITKA1, Jaroslav SINDLER1,Miroslav JANOTA1
1Czech Technical University, Faculty of mechanical Engineering, RCMT, Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract

An experimental identification of joint dynamic properties requires accurate models of the joined bodies and an appropriate model coupling method. The bodies to be coupled can be described by their mass, stiffness and damping matrices (M, K, C) or by receptance matrices. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The receptance matrix method requires a high number of measurements. However the measured data can be used directly and no model identification is needed. The experimental identification of the M, K, C matrices feasible for creating precise coupled models is difficult. Therefore, an approach based on a verified FE model can be employed. The two methods of model identification and coupling are discussed using a case study of two bolted beams. Several ways of the receptance matrices measurement simplification and their influence on the accuracy of the results are studied. The effect of noise, measured FRF peak accuracy and data filtering on the resulting coupled receptance matrix is studied as well. The results obtained by the receptance matrix method are compared to the results obtained by the method of coupling the verified FE models. It has been found that the method based on coupling the verified M, K, C matrices proves to be a more reliable approach, which will allow a more precise joint dynamic model identification in the next step.

Author Keywords :

machine tool, mutlibody model, component coupling, harmonic analysis

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 71-80

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY AFTER ROLLING BURNISHING OF EM AW-ALCU4MGSI(A) ALUMINIUM ALLOY

Janusz KALISZ1, Krzysztof ZAK2, Wit GRZESIK2,Kazimierz CZECHOWSKI1
1Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Cracow, Poland
2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland

Abstract

This paper characterizes surface topographies produced by medium milling of EM AW-AlCu4MgSi(A) aluminium alloy in hardened state T451 using a ball-end cutter of 8 mm diameter and subsequent finish by roller burnishing using a Si3N4 nitride ceramic ball of 8mm diameter. It was revealed that ball burnishing operations performed on curvilinear milled surfaces allow obtaining the machined surfaces of high quality and exceptional smoothness with different textures and, as a result, ensuring demanded functional properties such as fatigue strength, bearing properties and contact strength [1]. It was experimentally verified that precision ball burnishing performed with a low stepover of 0.04mm produced a very smooth with the Sa roughness of about 0.02?m characteristic for polishing.

Author Keywords :

aluminium, milling, burnishing, surface texture, functional properties

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 81-89

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

MODELLING OF MATERIAL FLOW DURING INCREMENTAL FORMING PROCESS ON THE BASIS OF DIGITAL MATERIAL REPRESENTATION CONCEPT

Joanna SZYNDLER1, Konrad PERZYNSKI1, Lukasz MADEJ1
1AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

Abstract

The main goal of the work is development of the multiscale numerical model of the incremental forming process for manufacturing integral elements applicable in the aerospace industry. Description of the proposed incremental forming concept based on division of large die into a series of small anvils pressed into the material by a moving roll is presented. A complex multi scale numerical model of mentioned incremental forging process based on the digital material representation (DMR) concept was developed and is also described within the paper. Finally, obtained results in the form of strain distribution are presented and compared with the outcome from conventional forging at the macro and micro scale, respectively.

Author Keywords :

forging, numerical modelling,aluminum

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 90-97

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

THE EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN RECRYSTALLIZATION ANNEALING TIME ON THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF COLD-DRAWN WIRES

Dominika GRYGIER1, Malgorzata RUTKOWSKA-GORCZYCA1, Wlodzimierz DUDZINSKI1
1Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Strength and Welding Technology, Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract

Although many heat treatment schemes have been developed for pearlitic steel, in the literature there is still little information about the influence of the different heat treatment parameters on the percentage, properties and morphology of the phases. Neither there is any information on matching the parameters, taking into account the different degree of deformation of the steel wires, the particular applications and operating conditions of the products. The aim of this research was to optimize the parameters of the interoperation annealing used during the cold plastic working of pearlitic steel intended for cold-drawn wires. The results of the hardness measurements and microscopic observations, presented in this paper clearly show that there is no need to apply long recrystallization treatments to small diameter wires. This finding is highly significant from the economic point of view and it clearly shows the importance of the individual matching of heat treatment parameters to specific industrial applications.

Author Keywords :

pearlitic steel, annealing, cementite

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 98-111

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO PARAMETERS INFLUENCING ROLL TENSIONING OF CIRCULAR SAW BLADES

Uwe HEISEL1, Thomas STEHLE1, Hadi GHASSEMI1
1University of Stuttgart, Institute for Machine Tools, Stuttgart, Germany

Abstract

Circular saw blades are rolled in the shape of a ring by special roll tensioning machines to improve the static and dynamic behaviour of steel saw blades. Plastic deformation and strain hardening in the roller track area cause residual stresses in the circular saw blade, which influence the static stiffness and the natural frequencies of the circular saw blade. Roll tensioning is one of the important parts when producing circular saws, especially in the production of thin circular saw blades. Although the influence of the roll tensioning process on the static and dynamic properties is well-known, it is interesting to further investigate the parameters influencing the roll tensioning process. This paper presents the influence of various parameters on the roll tensioning process, such as material properties, rolling force, contact condition between roller wheels and circular saw blade. These investigations help to find the optimisation ability of this process and to gain a better understanding of the relationships between roll tensioning processes and improved static and dynamic properties of thin saw blades.

Author Keywords :

circular saw, wood machining,cutting tool, metal forming

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 1, 2015, Page 112-124

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

ANALYSIS OF MACHINE PRODUCTION PROCESSES BY RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH

Kashif MAHMOOD1, Eduard SHEVTSHENKO1
1Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Machinery, Tallinn, Estonia

Abstract

Risk assessment is one of the important ways to analyze and protecting production processes. It facilitates to focus on the risks that really matter to execute a fail-safe manufacturing process or task. Risk management is considered to be a proactive and planned approach in order to encounter problems and reacting to them if they arise. On the other hand it provides assistance to continuous monitoring and evaluating of potential failure that might occurs during a process, moreover, it also explores the ways to avoid probable cost, time delays and quality of a product or service. The output of assessment process such as list of potential failures, their consequences and likelihood, and response system is circulated within the enterprise,so that personnel involved of risks and the criticality of a machine itself that performs the specific production process.

Author Keywords :

production, process risk, criticality assessment, isk assessment

Full text of paper Journal of Machine Engineering Journal of Machine Engineering

CONTENTS

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015

ISSN 1895-7595

o article: Influence of Cutting Conditions on Temperature Distribution in Face Milling of Inconel 718 Nickel-Chromium Alloy (Grzesik W., Nieslony P., Habrat W., Laskowski P.), pp. 5-16
o article: Drevation of a Cost Model to Aid Management of CNC Machine Tool Accuracy Maintenance (Shagluf A., Longstataff A.P., Fletcher S.)pp. 17-43
o article: Development of Software for Calculation of Best Condition Using Taguchi Methods and Its Evaluation (Sakamoto H., Tanabe I., Takahashi S.), pp. 44-55
o article: Integration of Advanced Monitoring in Manufacturing Systems (Oborski P.), pp. 55-68
o article: Development for Sound Quality Optimisation by Taguchi Methods (Sakamoto H., Tanabe I., Takahashi S.), pp.69-81
o article: Non Destructive Evaluation of Surface Integrity Produced by Milling and Grinding Using Barkhausen Noise Signals (Neslusan M., Kejzlar P., Cllikova M., Micietova A.), pp. 82-91
o article: Experimental Investigation of Flat Surfaces in Contact (Maciolka P.), pp. 92-104

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JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 5-16

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

INFLUENCE OF CUTTING CONDITIONS ON TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN FACE MILLING OF INCONEL 718 NICKEL-CHROMIUM ALLOY

Wit GRZESIK1, Piotr NIESLONY1, Witold HABRAT2,Piotr LASKOWSKI3
1 Opole University of Technology, Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering and Process Automation, Opole, Poland
2 Rzeszˇw University of Technology, Dept. of Manufacturing Techniques and Automation, Rzeszˇw, Poland
3 WSK PZL Rzeszˇw, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents 3D FEM simulation results obtained for the milling operations on a nickel-chromium alloy (Inconel 718) using the Johnson-Cook material constitutive model and variable cutting conditions. Face milling tests were carried out using silicon-aluminum-oxygen-nitrogen (SiAlON) ceramic cutting tools inserts. The machining conditions were selected based on real production data (cutting speed of vc=750 and 800 m/min, feed of f=0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 mm/t, depth of cut of ap=1, 1.5 and 2 mm). The FEM simulations include the maximum and average values of the cutting temperature. They were compared with experimental data obtained by using the high speed infra-red camera.

Author Keywords :

3D FEM simulation, milling process, nickel-chromium alloy

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 17-43

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

DERIVATION OF A COST MODEL TO AID MANAGEMENT OF CNC MACHINE TOOL ACCURACY MAINTENANCE

Abubaker SHAGLUF1, Andrew P. LONGSTAFF1, Simon FLETCHER1
1Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, UK

Abstract

Manufacturing industries strive to produce improved component accuracy while not reducing machine tool availability or production throughput. The accuracy of CNC production machines is one of the critical factors in determining the quality of these components. Maintaining the capability of the machine to produce in-tolerance parts can be approached in one of two ways: run to failure or periodic calibration and monitoring. The problem is analogous to general machine tool maintenance, but with the clear distinction that the failure mode of general machine tool components results in a loss of production, whereas that of accuracy allows parts to be produced, which are only later detected as non-conforming as part of the quality control processes. This distinction creates problems of cost-justification, since at this point in the manufacturing chain, any responsibility of the machine is not directly evident. Studies in the field of maintenance have resulted in cost calculations for the downtime associated with machine failure. This paper addresses the analogous, unanswered problem of maintaining the accuracy of CNC machine tools. A mathematical cost function is derived that can form the basis of a strategy for either running until non-conforming parts are detected or scheduling predictive CNC machine tool calibrations. This is sufficiently generic that it can consider that this decision will be based upon different scales of production, different values of components etc. Therefore, the model is broken down to a level where these variables for the different inputs can be tailored to the individual manufacturer.

Author Keywords :

downtime cost, machine tools,predictive calibration, accuracy

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 44-54

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE FOR CALCULATION OF BEST CONDITION USING TAGUCHI METHODS AND ITS EVALUATION

Hideki SAKAMOTO1, Ikuo TANABE11, Satoshi TAKAHASHI2
1Nagaoka University of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka, Japan
2Nagaoka University of Technology, Educational affairs section, Mechanics and Machinery Group, Nagaoka, Japan

Abstract

Recently Taguchi methods are used to decide optimum processing conditions with narrow dispersion for robust design. On the other hand, innovative development with short-term, low cost, labor and energy saving is also required in the world. In this study, the software for development of a product with optimum condition using Taguchi methods is developed and evaluated. There are two trials in the software using Taguchi methods. First trial investigates rough functions regarding all levers of all control factors, then important control factors and meaningless control factors were sorted with the several comments for the second trial. At that time, maximum, intermediate and minimum values for each lever of each of the control factors should be used for pursuit of all possibilities. In the first trial, the relationship between each level value of each of the control factor and the desired property is also decided by the function, then the optimum combination using each level of each of the control factors were calculated for the second trial by using the function. The second trial is confirmed for the best combination using the estimated optimum level values. For example of an application, the optimum design for the paper craft "airplane" was investigated for evaluating this software in the experiment. It is concluded from the result that: (1) The proposed software was useful for developing with short-term and lower cost, (2) This tool could quickly and exactly decide the optimum design condition and (3) The paper craft "airplane" with most long flying length is manufactured by using the developed software.

Author Keywords :

Taguchi methods, design, optimum condition

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 55-68

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

INTEGRATION OF ADVANCED MONITORING IN MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

Przemyslaw OBORSKI1,
1Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract

Novel concept of monitoring systems integration, reference models and test application for manufacturing are presented in the paper. Research results are an answer for industry needs for development of IT solutions that will allow to integrate information flow in production systems. The idea of standalone advanced monitoring devices connection with Shop Floor Control, MRP/ERP and machine operators is discussed. The concept of monitoring systems integration has been formally described by reference models. They corresponds with original multilayer data structure proposed on the base of data tree. Data model allows to describe orders, products, processes and to save monitoring results. Both kind of models has been the base for implementation of the integrated monitoring system demonstrator. The demonstrator developed in the frame of research was built on the base of multiagent technology. It allows to keep high flexibility and openness of the system, as well as easy implementation of various intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently, an application of integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. The main problems and future development of monitoring integration in discrete production are presented and discussed in the article.

Author Keywords :

integrated monitoring systems, manufacturing, multiagent systems, cyber-physical-systems, shop floor control

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 69-81

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

DEVELOPMENT FOR SOUND QUALITY OPTIMISATION BY TAGUCHI-METHODS

Hideki SAKAMOTO1, Ikuo TANABE12, Satoshi TAKAHASHI3
1Nagaoka University of Technology, Dept. of Information Science and Control Engineering, Nagaoka, Japan
2Nagaoka University of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka, Japan
3Nagaoka University of Technology, Educational affairs section, Mechanics and Machinery Group, Nagaoka, Japan

Abstract

Characteristic that is hard to obtain in the calculation in product development. The sensory characteristic is often had such as sound quality, visual sensation and tactile sensation. The evaluation method for visualizing the determination of the customer is being established by applying Taguchi-methods and so on. The fact is still got many corresponds with the method of Try & Error as numbers of cases are small in order to optimize the properties. Therefore, the study was conducted of the method for optimization of sound quality by using the innovative tool using Taguchi-methods that newly developed. The research results are summarized as follows. (1) Sensory characteristic tuning method by using Taguchi-methods was calculated the values to be optimized in a few studies, and the result was equal to or greater than the result of specialists is carried out. (2) Commonly, the sensory characteristic of optimization is conducted with the method of Try & Error; moreover, it could be confirmed that leading to improvement of productivity by using this method even though it takes time to perform so as to optimize under changing in physical condition and environment

Author Keywords :

Taguchi-methods, optimum condition, innovation

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 82-91

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

NON DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF SURFACE INTEGRITY PRODUCED BY MILLING AND GRINDING USING BARKHAUSEN NOISE SIGNALS

Miroslav NESLUSAN1, Pavel KEJZLAR2, Maria CLLIKOVA1, Anna MICIETOVA1
1University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Zilina, Slovak Republic
2Institute for Nanomaterials, Technical University in Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic

Abstract

This paper deals with investigation of hard milled and ground surfaces via non destructive Barkhausen noise (BN) technique. The paper compares the raw BN signals, extracted BN features such as effective (rms) values and appearance of hysteresis loops produced by grinding and milling cycles. Information about surface state is correlated and confronted with metallographic observations, SEM readings as well as residual stress state. The paper also discusses the specific character of BN signals (and the corresponding BN features) produced by hard milled surface as a result of the magnetic shape memory effect when the machined surface undergoes severe plastic deformation at elevated temperatures.

Author Keywords :

Barkhausen noise,hard milling,grinding

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 2, 2015, Page 92-104

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FLAT SURFACES IN CONTACT

Pawel MACIOLKA1
1Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Machine Tools and Mechanical Technologies, Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents a method of measuring deformations in the contact between flat surfaces and a way of estimating the shares of elastic and plastic deformations in the total contact deformations. Experiments showed that the share of plastic of the contacting surfaces, amounting to a few per cent and to 37% for respectively steel specimens and specimens made of aluminium alloy AW5754. A strategy for estimating all the deformation components for the tested specimen types and the kinds of machining is presented.

Author Keywords :

Test stand, contact deformation, procedures, clamping

Full text of paper Journal of Machine Engineering Journal of Machine Engineering

CONTENTS

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015

ISSN 1895-7595

o article: Real-Time Compensation of Machine Tool Thermal Error Including Cutting Process(Horejs O., Mares M., Hornych J. HORNYCH ), pp. 5-18
o article: Advanced Thermal Error Compensation of a Floor Type Machining Centre Allowing for the Influence of Interchangeable Spindle Heads (Mares M., Horejs O., Hornych J.) pp. 18-32
o article: Modelling the Effects of Residual Stresses on Electro-Magnetic Properties of Super Alloys(Goetz S., Chandra D., Veselovac D., Klocke F.), pp. 33-40
o article: On the Modern CNC Milling with a Compensation of Cutting Tools and Thin-Walled Workpiec Deflections (Polzer A., Dufkova K., Pokorny P.), pp. 41-49
o article: Production System Innovation Through Evolvability: Existing Challenges & Requirements (Rahatulain A.,Onori M.), pp.50-64
o article: A Study of Cutting and Forming Threads with Coated HSS Taps (Piska M., Sliwkova P.), pp. 65-74
o article: Optimization of a Multi-Drilling Sequence with MQL Supply to Minimize Thermal Distortion of Aluminum Parts (Faverjon P., RechJ.,Valiorgue F., Orset M.), pp. 75-89
o article: Identification and Analysis of Linked Systems' Dynamic Accuracy - Proposal of a Measurement Approach and Instrumentation (Dapero A., Archenti A.), pp. 90-105
o article: The Hydro-Multipoint Forming Process of Complex Sheet Metal Parts (Paunoiu V., Teodor V., Baraoiu N.), pp. 106-116
o article: New Paradigm in Control of Machining System's Dynamics (Nicolescu M, Frangoudis C., Semere D., Archenti A., Rashid A.), pp. 117-137

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JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 5-18

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

REAL-TIME COMPENSATION OF MACHINE TOOL THERMAL ERRORS INCLUDING CUTTING PROCESS

Otakar HOREJS1, Martin MARES1, Jan HORNYCH1
1Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Research Center of Manufacturing Technology, Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract

The challenge to be addressed by this paper is to extend the common machine tool thermal compensation models considering only internal heat sources to include the effects of the cutting process. Although real-time software compensations of thermal errors exist, the majority of these models only presume machine tools under load-free rotation of the main spindle without any reference to rough machining. The machining process is completely neglected in spite of the fact that it represents a significant heat source and causes workpiece inaccuracy. This paper presents a real-time compensation of three-axis vertical milling centre thermal errors including the cutting process effect. The simulation is based on dynamic modelling using transfer functions. The model was implemented into a standard CNC controller of a three-axis vertical milling centre to compensate for thermal errors in real time. The inputs of the compensation algorithm are the spindle rotational speed, the 5 temperatures of the machine structure and spindle power. A reduction of thermal errors achieved by using the new approximation TF model including cutting process impact is up to 79% for steel cutting tests with different cutting conditions.

Author Keywords :

thermal error, real-time compensation, cutting process

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 19-32

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

ADVANCED THERMAL ERROR COMPENSATION OF A FLOOR TYPE MACHINING CENTRE ALLOWING FOR THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCHANGEABLE SPINDLE HEADS

Martin MARES1, Otaka HOREJS1, Jan HORNYCH1
1Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Research Center of Manufacturing Technology, Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract

Thermal errors caused by internal and external heat sinks and sources may cause more than 50% of machine tool (MT) total error. Demands on machining accuracy and machine time utilization are still increasing. Therefore, research on thermal behaviour of MT structures is crucial for successful manufacturing. Direct (measuring between tool and work-piece) and indirect (predictive models) approaches to compensation of thermo-dependent tool centre point (TCP) displacement can be used to reduce sensitivity to heat flow or temperature control of MT and its environment. Thermal error indirect compensation is one of the techniques widely employed to reduce thermal errors due to its cost-effectiveness and ease of implementation. This paper is a continuation of scientific work on the modelling of complex MT thermal behaviour using a dynamic method with a physical basis: thermal transfer functions (TF). Previously published works focusing on middle-sized MTs are extended here to include heavy-duty MT application. Particular attention is paid to issues concerning compensation of thermal errors caused by interchangeable spindle heads.

Author Keywords :

heavy-duty machine tool, real-time compensation, thermal error, spindle head

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 33-40

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON ELECTRO-MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SUPER ALLOYS

Sven GOETZ1, Denen CHANDRA1, Drazen VESELOVAC1, Fritz KLOCKE1
1Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Abstract

Super Alloys, commonly used in safety-critical aerospace components, regularly impose problems when machined in drilling or milling processes, resulting in surface damages that facilitate cracks. Residual stresses are often induced to prevent crack mitigation, but national aviation agencies set high quality standards on them. Current methods are either destructive or impose safety risks for the employees. Eddy current methods, however, are fast and cheap non-destructive methods to receive information on metallic surfaces. They rely on electro-magnetic properties of the material. The influence of residual stresses on both permeability and conductivity are not yet fully understood. This article presents a simple model that describes the correlation between residual stresses and those aspects. At first, the dependency of permeability and conductivity on various metallurgical properties, such as grain size or orientation, is deduced. In a second step, the influence of residual stresses on these properties is shown. A third step combines both steps into a coherent and holistic model to describe the influence of residual stresses on the electro-magnetic properties of Super Alloys. This model will help establishing Eddy Current Testing in the product monitoring in the aerospace industry.

Author Keywords :

aerospace components, eddy current testing, residual stresses

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 41-49

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

ON THE MODERN CNC MILLING WITH A COMPENSATION OF CUTTING TOOLS AND THIN-WALLED WORKPIECE DEFLECTIONS

Alec POLZER1, Katerine DUFKOVA1, Premysl POKORNY1
1Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Brno, Czech Republic

Abstract

Accuracy of machined components is one of the most critical considerations for any manufacturer. However, when milling the radial force deflects the cutting tool and workpiece. It affects the precision and quality of machined surfaces. The extent of the deviations can be predicted in various mathematical models. Thus, the errors can be compensated in NC programme effectively. So it is possible to machine with high cutting conditions, and also a high quality of machined surface can be achieved. In this paper are predicted deflection of milling tools and thin-walled workpiece. The experimental results show that the overall error in the flexible milling can be captured and predicted with very high accuracy.

Author Keywords :

milling, CNC, deflection, surface quality, prediction

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 50-64

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

PRODUCTION SYSTEM INNOVATION THROUGH EVOLVABILITY: EXISTING CHALLENGES & REQUIREMENTS

Afifa RAHATULAIN1, Mauro ONORI2
1SenseAir AB, Sweden
2KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Production Engineering, Sweden

Recent mass-customization trends and increasing global competition has posed many challenges for the current manufacturing industry, particularly in Europe. Having a quick response to market fluctuations and adapting to customer demands while maintaining shorter lead times and low cost are a few of the major challenges. This paper focuses on Evolvable Production System (EPS), which is one of the emerging cyber physical systems in the manufacturing domain to address these challenges. The main objectives of this paper are: a) to identify the potential areas which may require modifications for the wide-scale implementation of the new manufacturing paradigms in the existing industrial setup, and b) to investigate the risks, challenges & opportunities associated with the concept realization in industry within each identified area. The results are derived based on both an extensive literature study as well as a survey carried out at an SME.

Author Keywords :

evolvable production systems, challenges, innovation, opportunities

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 65-74

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

A STUDY OF CUTTING AND FORMING THREADS WITH COATED HSS TAPS

Miroslav PISKA1, Petra SLIWKOVA1
1Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic

Abstract

Tapping is a very common machining process for producing internal threads. A tap is a cylindrical or tapered thread cutting tool having threads of a desired form on the periphery. Combining rotary motion with axial motion, a tap cuts or forms the internal thread. Due to desired accuracy and versatility of thread profiles most taps are made of high speed steel. Physical surface coating taps (monolayer, duplex or triplex) increases tap life and improves thread finish. Regarding the CNC canned cycles the demands on safe tool performance of the threads are more and more urgent. This paper deals with a study of 2D surface parameters, Coulomb┤s coefficient of friction, energy consumption and cutting/forming performance of selected PVD coated HSS taps when machining of carbon steel C45 and forming of hardened steel 42CrMo4V.

Author Keywords :

threads, cutting, forming, surface quality, tool life

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 75-89

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

OPTIMIZATION OF A MULTI-DRILLING SEQUENCE WITH MQL SUPPLY TO MINIMIZE THERMAL DISTORTION OF ALUMINUM PARTS

Pierre FAVERJON1, Joel RECH1, Frederic VALTORGUE1, Marc ORSET1
1University of Lyon -ENISE, Saint-╔tienne, France

Abstract

The drilling process with solid carbide tools with minimum quantity lubrication is under development in the automotive industry due to its high productivity and its environmental benefit. Because of the poor cooling performance when using MQL, a high amount of heat remains in the workpiece, which induces macroscopic thermal distortions and inaccurate parts. This paper presents a methodology to model the thermal distortion of a complex part having a large number of holes. The heat flux entering into the workpiece during each drilling operation is calibrated based on embedded thermocouples and on geometrical observations of the drill surface. Finally, it is shown how the model enables the optimization of a drilling sequence so as to minimize the thermal distortion and the accuracy of the machined part.

Author Keywords :

thermal distortion, heat transfer, modelling, drilling

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 90-105

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF LINKED SYSTEMS'DYNAMIC ACCURACY - PROPOSAL OF A MEASUREMENT APPROACH AND INSTRUMENTATION

Andrea DAPERO1, Andreas ARCHENTI2
1Tetra Pak Italiana, Rubiera, Italy
2KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Production Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract

In this paper a measurement approach and instrumentation for capturing the dynamic stiffness of a linked system is proposed. The approach is based on the loaded double ball bar (LDBB) in combination with an integral dynamic shaker. The innovation is the introduction of a dynamic load besides the static one given by the LDBB and consequently able to extract the frequency response functions, taking advantage of the possibility of orienting the LDBB in different directions of the machine tool. The dynamic behaviour is studied through experimental modal analysis. The test conditions are therefore more similar to a cutting situation in which both a static and a dynamic component of force characterise the system. However, it must be underlined that the introduced dynamic force does not replicate the one arising in a cutting operation, but it is chosen instead for its spectrum characteristics, i.e. the energy introduced must equally cover a given range of frequencies. The test method is able to reveal machine tool characteristics not obtainable with existing methods, for instance the variation of dynamic stiffness in the working space. The paper will include some theoretical aspects on the approach as well as some experimental investigation.

Author Keywords :

machining system, accuracy, dynamics, elastically linked system

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 106-116

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

THE HYDRO-MULTIPOINT FORMING PROCESS OF COMPLEX SHEET METAL PARTS

Viorel PAUNOIU1, Virgil TEODOR1,Nicusor BAROIU1
1Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering, Galati, Romania

Abstract

The paper presents the concept of a new tool for the sheet metal blanks deformation which is based on the hydro-multipoint method. In this method the upper die with pins is replaced with a hydraulic pressure chamber. The blank sheet is placed between two flexible interpolators and it is deformed under the action of the pressure applied from the hydraulic chamber until it takes the shape of the multipoint die located at the bottom of the equipment. A critical review of the main hydroforming and multipoint forming methods is done. Then, a simulation model for the new hydro-multipoint forming tool is developed. Material thickness, stresses and part dimensions are analysed. A mechanical hydro-multipoint forming tool which was designed and manufactured based on the new concept is presented. Using this tool a number of experiments are done. The real parts are evaluated in terms of surface quality and parts dimensions. The experimental results come to validate the numerical ones. Finally, it was concluded that this new die concept could be used in manufacturing complex sheet metal parts.

Author Keywords :

multipoint forming, sheet hydroforming, deep drawing, simulation

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 3, 2015, Page 116-137

ISSN 1895-7595

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015, Poland

NEW PARADIGM IN CONTROL OF MACHINING SYSTEM'S DYNAMICS

Mihai NICOLESCU1, Constantinos FRANGOUDIS1,Daniel SEMERE1, Andreas ARCHENTI1,Amir RASHID1
1Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering, Galati, Romania

Abstract

The increasing demands for precision and efficiency in machining call for effective control strategies based on the identification of static and dynamic characteristics under operational conditions. The capability of a machining system is significantly determined by its static and dynamic stiffness. The aim of this paper is to introduce novel concepts and methods regarding identification and control of a machining system's dynamics. After discussing the limitations in current methods and technologies of machining systems' identification and control, the paper introduces a new paradigm for controlling the machining system dynamics based on design of controllable structural Joint Interface Modules, JIMs, whose interface characteristics can be tuned using embedded actuators. Results from the laboratory and industrial implementation demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy with a high degree of repeatability.

Author Keywords :

machining system, parametric identification, operational dynamic parameters, joint interface module

Full text of paper Journal of Machine Engineering Journal of Machine Engineering

CONTENTS

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

o article: Discussion of Machine Tool Intelligence, Based on Selected Concepts and Research (Jedrzejewski J., Kwasny W.)., S. 5-26
o article: Cutting Force Reduction in The Milling of Aluminum Alloys with Serrated Cutting Tool Edges (Rekers S., Auerbach T., Veselovac D., Klocke F.), s., 27-36
o article: Investigation of Initial Wear Period of Differently Coated Carbide Cutting Tools (Bartoszuk M., Grzesik W.), s. 37-45
o article: Modelling and Analysis of Displacement of Materials Characterized by Different Properties in the Zone of Microcutting (Kacalak W., Tandecka K., MATHIA T.G.), s. 46-58
o article: Evaluation of Micromachining Processes Using Data in the Format and Geometric Characteristics of Micro-Chips (Kacalak W.,Tandecka K., Rypina L.), s. 59-68
o article: The Method of "In Plane Generating Trajectories" for Tools which Generate by Enveloping - Application in CATIA (Teodor V., Paunoiu V., Berbinschi S., Baroiu N., Oancea N.), s.69-80
o article: Performance Evaluation of Machining Strategy for Engine-Block Manufacturing (Tigist A.F., Bianchi M.F., Archenti A., Nicolescu M.), s., 81-102
o article: Prediction of Microfinishing Effects with the Use of Abrasive Films Utilizing Data Characterizing Their Surface Topography (Kacalak W., Tandecka K., Mathia T.G.), s.103-112
o article: Comparison of Power and Energy Consumption for Hard Turning and Burnishing Operations of 41CR4 Steel (Chudy R., Grzesik W.)., s. 113-120
o article: Experimental Determination of Critical Orientation of ABS Parts Manufactured Using Fused Deposition Modelling Technology (Gorski F., Wichniarek R., Kuczko W., Andrzejewski J.), s. 121-132
o article: Design and Implementation of Wireless Module Based on ZiGBee for Applications in Machine Tools (Kasprzak M.), s. 133-143

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JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 5-26

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

DISCUSSION OF MACHINE TOOL INTELLIGENCE, BASED ON SELECTED CONCEPTS AND RESEARCH

Received: 01 July 2015 / Accepted 04 October 2015 / Published print: 30 November 2015

Jerzy JEDRZEJEWSKI1, Wojciech KWASNY1
1Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Machine Tools and Mechanical Technologies, Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract

This paper discusses the need to create intelligent machine tools, the expected properties of such machine tools and the benefits they will bring to business and the development of manufacturing. The basis for machine tool intelligence, and the evolution of machine tools towards the development of their intelligent functions, with a special emphasis on control, digitization and virtualization systems, the role of the STP-NC standard, and the prediction of machine tool operating properties, are presented. The arising concepts of the development of intelligent machine tool functions, which take into account the monitoring and planning of a collisionless tool path, are discussed. The approach to achieving real time and the intelligent machine tool is described for copy milling. Also the directions of implementing intelligent functions by machine tool manufacturers are presented using the MAZAK Corporation as an example.

Author Keywords :

machine tool, intelligence, learning, intelligent avoiding, collisions, trajectories, real time

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 27-36

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

CUTTING FORCE REDUCTION IN THE MILLING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS WITH SERRATED CUTTING TOOL EDGES

Received: 04 August 2015 / Accepted: 08 October 2015 / Published Print:30 November 2015

Simon REKERS1, Thomas AUERBACH1, Drazen VESELOVAC1, Fritz KLOCKE1
1Aachen University, Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL of RWTH, Aachen, Germany

Abstract

Structural components for aerospace industry are in most cases milled from solid. Usually more than 80 % of the bulk material is removed by milling processes in order to obtain the parts final shape. Due to economic aspects, high material removal rates are desired to reduce cost intensive machine cycle times. In order to meet high process design demands, optimized cutting forces at maximized material removal rates are of crucial interest. These are especially depending on the work piece material to be machined, the cutter work piece engagement conditions as well as the millin cutters geometry. The usage of milling tools with serrated cutting edge geometries enables a significant reduction of cutting forces. In this article cutting forces during milling aluminum alloys using different serration geometries and engagement conditions are investigated. At first, a generic cutting force model is introduced. The required model parameters are approximated for the machined material by subsequent milling tests employing non-serrated cutters. In a second step, a model is presented allowing a time-domain simulation to obtain cutting force variations for cutters with serrated cutting edges. Finally, experimental data for different serrated cutters are compared with the simulated predictions.

Author Keywords :

cutting force, simulation, milling

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 37-45

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

INVESTIGATION OF INITIAL WEAR PERIOD OF DIFFERENTLY COATED CARBIDE CUTTING TOOLS

Received: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 October 2015 / Published print:30 November2015

Marian BARTOSZUK1, Wit GRZESIK1
1Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole, Poland

Abstract

In this paper the results of experimental studies concerning the phenomenon of initial period of the wear of differently coated sintered carbide tools when dry orthogonal cutting of an AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel are presented. The motivation for this study results from the lack of technological guides concerning the optimal choice of coated cutting tools for machining of corrosion resistant austenitic stainless steels. A number of cutting tool inserts with the plane rake face made of a fine H10F sintered carbide substrate with specially deposited TiN, including TiCN, TiAlN, AlTiN and AlCrN single layers were used in wear tests. Both rake and flank faces of the cutting inserts were examined by optical and confocal microscopy after controlled tool wear. The possible wear mechanisms in terms of changes of the tool-chip contact were investigated.

Author Keywords :

orthogonal cutting, coatings, tool wear, stainless steel

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 46-58

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF DISPLACEMENT OF MATERIALS CHARACTERIZED BY DIFFERENT PROPERTIES IN THE ZONE OF MICROCUTTING

Received: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 07 October 2015 / Published print:30 November2015

Wojciech KACALAK1, Lukasz RYPINA1, Katarzyna TANDECKA1
1Department of Precision Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents the results of numerical studies conducted using Ansys system, the impact of model's parameters on the workpiece displacement formation. In the simulation, one used the model of real grain. The authors analyzed the influence of material's properties on the formation of lateral flow in the machining zone. Observation was also made for the material's stagnation zone, which depends on geometrical characteristics of the blade, shape of its surface and characteristics of the workpiece.

Author Keywords :

Ansys, modelling, microcutting, grinding

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 59-68

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

EVALUATION OF MICROMACHINING PROCESSES USING DATA IN THE FORMAT AND GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MICRO-CHIPS

Received: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published print:30 November 2015

Wojciech KACALAK1, Katarzyna TANDECKA1, Lukasz RYPINA1
1Department of Precision Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland

Abstract

Studies on micro-chips formed in the process of micromachining, including grinding and microfinishing using abrasive films, were conducted. Geometric characteristics of the micro-chips were analyzed and the presence of very long chips compared to their width was observed. One also reported the presence of very high temperatures in the treatment zone despite the applied cooling, which resulted in the formation of spherical chips. The occurrence of two characteristic spherical chip structures was observed followed by evaluation of their chemical composition. Based on the tabular structure of band chips, characteristic micro-discontinuities in the microcutting process were determined.

Author Keywords :

microfinishing micro-chips, discontinuity

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 69-80

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

THE METHOD OF "IN-PLANE GENERATING TRAJECTORIES" FOR TOOLS WHICH GENERATE BY ENVELOPING - APPLICATION IN CATIA

Received: 09 July 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published print:30 November2015

Virgil TEODOR1, Viorel PAUNOIU1, Silviu BERBINSCHI2, Nicu║or BAROIU1,Nicolae OANCEA1
1University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Romania
2University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Mechanical Engineering Department, Romania

Abstract

The method of "in-plane generating trajectories" is a method designed to study the enveloping profiles associated with a pair of rolling centrodes. This method assumes knowledge the analytical form of the in-planes trajectories described by the points onto the profiles to be generated. These trajectories are known in the reference system of the generating tool, which may be a rack-gear, a gear-shaped or a rotary cutter tool. The envelope of these trajectories represents the profile of the generating tool. An original method for determining the enveloping condition is presented in this paper. Application for ordered curling of non involute profiles were developed based on the specific enveloping condition. A new solution is proposed. This solution uses the capabilities of the CATIA graphical environment. Graphical solutions are proposed versus analytical solutions in order to validate the proposed method.

Author Keywords :

in plane generating trajectories, CATIA,rolling generating tools

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 81-102

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MACHINING STRATEGY FOR ENGINE-BLOCK MANUFACTURING

Received: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published print:30 November2015

Adane F. TIGIST1, Maria F. BIANCHI1,Andreas ARCHENTI1,Mihai NICOLESCU1
1KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Production Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract

This paper will introduce a novel methodology for the performance evaluation of machining strategies of engine-block manufacturing. The manufacturing of engine components is vital to the automotive and vehicle manufacturing industries. Machining are a critical processes in the production of these parts. To survive and excel in the competitive manufacturing environment, companies need to improve as well as update their machining processes and evaluate the performance of their machining lines. Moreover, the lines and processes have to be robust in handling different sources of variation over time that include such examples as demand fluctuations, work-piece materials or even any changes in design specifications. A system dynamics modelling and simulation approach has been deployed to develop a methodology that captures how machining system parameters from the machining process are interacted with each other, how these connections drive performance and how new targets affect process and machine tool parameters through time. The developed model could provide an insight of how to select the crucial machining system parameters and to identify the effect of those parameters on the output of the system. In response to such an analysis, this paper provides (offers) a framework to examine machining strategies and has presented model that is useful as a decision support system for the evaluation and selection of machining strategies. Here a system dynamics methodology for modelling is applied to the milling operation and the model is based on an actual case study from the engine-block manufacturing industry.

Author Keywords :

process modelling; machining strategies, engine-block manufacturing, dynamic modelling

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 103-112

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

PREDICTION OF MICROFINISHING EFFECTS WITH THE USE OF ABRASIVE FILMS UTILIZING DATA CHARACTERIZING THEIR SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY

Received: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 18 October 2015 / Published print:30 November 2015

Wojciech KACALAK1, Katarzyna TANDECKA1, Thomas G. MATHIA2
1Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Precision Mechanics, Koszalin, Poland
2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, (CNRS) Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, Lyon, France

Abstract

The publication describes the methodology and results of the studies on stereometric characteristics of the diamond surface of microfinishing films. This methodology is used in different treatments of precise finishing of very high smoothness and accuracy. One presented the results of analysis of vertices' size in parallel plane to the film surface and towards perpendicular plane to it. Moreover, one performed an assessment of the distance between the grains using surface decomposition on Voronoi cell surface. In order to determine the film surface necessary to perform a particula microfinishing operation, one developed an index which is dependent on the overall profile of the film in the form of an envelope of the sum of vertices' projections above a certain level. Studying the formation of diamond aggregates of abrasive grains and the spaces between them, one can conclude abou the machining potential of microfinishing film and determine a recommended speed of the film displacement ensuring maximum utilization of this potential.

Author Keywords :

abrasive grain, microfinishing, forecasting, surface topography

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 113-120

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

COMPARISON OF POWER AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR HARD TURNING AND BURNISHING OPERATIONS OF 41CR4 STEEL

Received: 01 July 2015 / Accepted 04 October 2015 / Published print: 30 November2015

Roman CHUDY1, Wit GRZESIK1
1Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents a new power measurement system which allows recording the power consumption profile and determining its components related to all the controlled axes. The system is based on computer processing of signals generated by current and voltage sensors connected to spindle and axis driving electric motors. It should be noted that these motors are controlled independently with different frequencies and voltages. By using LabVIEW data acquisition system, it is possible to record total power consumption and its components during a typical machining operation. This study concerns the power consumption in a sequence machining process consisting of hard turning and ball burnishing operations under variable machining conditions.

Author Keywords :

machine tool, power consumption, hard turning, burnishing

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 121-132

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL ORIENTATION OF ABS PARTS MANUFACTURED USING FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING TECHNOLOGY

Received: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published print: November 2015

Filip GORSKI1, Radoslaw WICHNIAREK1, Wieslaw KUCZKO1, Jacek ANDRZEJEWSKI2
1Poznan University of Technology, Chair of Management and Production Engineering, Poznan, Poland
2Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Technology, Poznan, Poland

Abstract

The paper presents results of experiments aimed at determination of range of critical orientation for parts manufactured additively using the Fused Deposition Modelling method, out of ABS material. Numerous previous observations of plastic parts manufactured additively using the FDM process allowed concluding, that change of values of the manufacturing orientation (i.e. direction of layer slicing plane) has large influence on the macrostructure of obtained parts, thus affecting their strength and behaviour under load - the material behaves eithe as a thermoplastic with a yield point or as a brittle material with no yield point. The paper presents methodology and results of experiments aimed at determination of a certain value or value range, at which transition between the two behaviours occurs. The experiments consisted of tensile tests performed on samples manufactured additively in a pre-selected range of orientations. The obtained results - a value range valid for the selected type of load and sample shape - will be useful in future to help select an optimal orientation of part for a defined task.

Author Keywords :

rapid manufacturing, fused deposition modelling, tensile strength

Full text of paper

JOURNAL OF MACHINE ENGINEERING

Vol 15, No. 4, 2015, Page 133-143

ISSN 2391-8071 (Online)

© Copyright by, Editorial Institution of the Wroclaw Board of Scientific Technical Societies Federation NOT, Wroclaw 2015 Poland

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF WIRELESS MODULE BASED ON ZiGBee FOR APPLICATIONS IN MACHINE TOOLS

Received: 08 October 2015 / Accepted: 09 October 2015 / Published print:30 Novembr2015

Marcin KASPRZAK1
1Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Machine Tools and Mechanical Technologies, Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents a concept of a wireless measuring system based on ZigBee modules, and the stages in its implementation. The distinctive feature of the built measuring systems is their high resistance to environmental conditions. To a large extent this was achieved through the use of induction charging. The effectiveness of this solution was determined by comparing it with conventional charging. The measuring modules built in accordance with this concept were tested in the work space of a machine tool during milling. Special attention was paid to the amount of power consumed by the tested modules during different modes of their operation. The response time of the modules during their operation in the work space of the working machine tool and in the case when the modules were completely immersed in water was tested. By comparing the measured response times the effect of the above factors on the correctness of operation of the measuring system was determined.

Author Keywords :

machine tool, wireless module, structure, tests, ZigBee, power consumption

Full text of paper
 







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